Could you please explain in which categories do the following directives of the Prophet (pbuh) mentioned in the Hadith literature fall under? Please mention if any of the following directives is a part of Sunnah. Also mention if any of the following directives is not a part of Islam.
Wudu is nullified after eating camel meat.
Forbiddance of eating donkey meat;
Forbiddance of cutting nails before slaughtering of animals during Dhul-Hajj;
Reciting a supplication after Azan imploring God for granting the “promised” intercession to the Prophet (pbuh) in the hereafter. Please note that the belief in the Prophet’s intercession in the hereafter is an addition to the corpus of Islam.
Forbiddance of fasting during the Eid festival day. Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have called such a thing as an act of devil. If this directive of the Prophet (pbuh) is not considered as a Sunnah, then it would mean as an addition to the corpus of Islam.
Forbiddance for the progeny of the Prophet (pbuh) to accept Zakat, Sadaqah. If this directive of the Prophet (pbuh) is not considered as a Sunnah, then it would mean as an addition to the corpus of Islam.
Slaughtering animals for sacrifice is accepted only if it is done before prayer during Eid.
Belief that the “Lailathul Qadr” falls in the last 10 days of Ramadhan. Neglection of this belief will amount to missing great reward for the Ibaadat (worship) offered during this period. Inclusion of this belief in Islam is an addition to the corpus of Islam.
Forbiddance to fast in the last part of Sha’ban and on Friday alone.
Forbiddance to cut the thorny bushes, trees, hunting, killing in Mecca.
The stated issues are discussed below:
I do not agree with those jurists, who hold that Wudu is required to be renewed after eating camel meat. It may also be noted that most of the Muslim jurists are of the opinion that eating camel meat does not break one’s ablution. Discussing this issue, Shawkaniy writes:
وكذلك روى أبو داود والترمذي وهو يدل على أن الأكل من لحوم الإبل من جملة نواقض الوضوء وقد اختلف في ذلك فذهب الأكثرون إلى أنه لا ينقض الوضوء قال النووي ممن ذهب إلى ذلك الخلفاء الأربعة وابن مسعود وأبي بن كعب وابن عباس وأبو الدرداء وأبو طلحة وعامر بن ربيعة وأبو أمامة وجماهير من التابعين ومالك وأبو حنيفة والشافعي وأصحابهم (نيل الأوطار ج: 1 ص: 252)
It (i.e. the related Hadith) has thus been reported by Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi. It implies that eating camel meat is among the things which breaks Wudu. However, there is a difference of opinion in this matter. The majority of Muslim scholars hold that doing so does not break a person’s wudu. Nawawiy has said that those who do not consider camel meat to break wudu include the four caliphs, Ibn Masoud, Ubayee ibn Ka`b, Ibn Abbas, Abu Dardaa, Abu Talha, Aamir ibn Rabiy`aa, Abu Imaamah and the majority among the the Tabi`yeen (the generation which followed the generation of the companions of the Prophet), Imam Malik, Abu Hanifah and Shafi`iy as well as their associates.
In the related narratives ascribed to the Prophet (pbuh), the Arabic word Wudu seems to have been used in a more literal, rather than a juristic sense, implying thoroughly washing of hands and mouth after eating camel meat. Seen in this perspective, the related directive of the Prophet (pbuh) is a part of general etiquette relating to cleanliness rather than one of the Shari`ah.
The prohibition of eating the flesh of a donkey is an explanation of a directive of Quran mentioned in surah Nahal 16 verse 8.
There is no restriction of cutting nails etc. during the first ten days of Dhul Hajj except upon those who intend to undertake Hajj.
It is not the concept of intercession, but the concept of such intercession that results in the negation of justice that is alien to Islam. Intercession which seeks God’s mercy for those, who deserve it is not alien to Islam.
Eid day is a day of festivity. Fasting on the Eid day is against the very concept of ‘Eid’. In the related directives, the Prophet (pbuh) has only expressed the obvious that one should not fast on the day of Eid. Thus, the related directive of the Prophet (pbuh) should be seen as a further elaboration of the very concept and spirit of Eid.
The forbiddance of Zaka’h for the progeny of the Prophet (pbuh) is only a means of promoting an equitable distribution of Zaka’h. Had the Prophet (pbuh) not restricted the Muslims from doing so, there was a possibility that Zaka’h funds may have concentrated with the family and progeny of the Prophet (pbuh).
Slaughtering the animal after offering the Eid prayers is a Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh).
The Qur’an has informed us that the revelation of the Qur’an was initiated on the Laylatul Qadr. Because the Prophet (pbuh) knew that the revelation of the Qur’an was initiated during the last few days of Ramadan, it was easily determined that the Laylatul Qadr fell somewhere in the last ten days of the month of Ramadan. Thus, the related information entailed in Hadith is only an application of the information given in the Qur’an.
The Prophet (pbuh) has discouraged people from fasting during the last part of Sha`baan as a means of promoting them to prepare and save all his vitality for fasting during the month of Ramadan. The related directive of the Prophet (pbuh) is clearly one based on general experience and wisdom. As for the ‘forbiddance’ of fasting on Fridays, it seems that it was for the purpose of discouraging the companions from making a routine of fasting on a particular day of the week, as otherwise the practice could have been perceived by later Muslims as a practice recommended by Islam.
The reverence of the city of Mekkah, which includes the general prohibition of destroying any form of life within its boundaries is part of specific directives associated with the Prophet Muhammad(pbuh) whilst he was completing his mission assigned to him by the Almighty Allah.